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04 January 2011

SHELL COMMANDS




 
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The most common UNIX / Linux commands
with examples (by om8000@gmail.com):


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cal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ display a calendar
Dispaly calender for a current monthcal
Dispaly calender for a current yearcal 2008
Display calendar dates for the whole yearscal -y
Display julian dates (number of days from 1 to 365)cal -j
Display a calendarcal -1
Display a calendar with one month before and one in the futurecal -3
Display a calendar for a particular month yearcal 9 2008
for detailed options see:man cal



finger _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ user info lookup program
For detailed options see:man finger
If you have Lnternet access, get latest kernel info: finger @finger.kernel.org



clear _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ clear the terminal screen
clear screen if possible clear -or- ctrl+r



write _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ send a message to another user
Write message to user1 write user2
Write message back to user root write root #(This way two way communication is established (simple chat).)



<><> </></>
wall _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ send a message to all connected users
Send a administrative message to all users: wall "Server will bew rebooted in 5 minutes"
Someone can also redirect message from a file wall < admin.msg



talk _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Talk client for one-on-one Internet chatting
For detailed options see: man talk
Potentially dangerous! Requires talk server to be running!
To talk to another user, just try:
talk user2



mesg _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ control write access to your terminal
For detailed options see: man mesg
Allow other people to send you messages to the console mesg y
Do not allow other users to send you messages using write or wall mesg n



mkdir _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ create a directory
For detailed options see: man mkdir
Create two directories simultaneously mkdir dir1 dir2
Create directory g1 inside existing directory r1 in the current directory: mkdir r1/d1
Create complete subdirectory structure at once mkdir -p /tmp/d1/d2/d3
Create directory path d1/d2/d3 underneath the current directory and
set permissions on directory diamond to read-only for all users (a=r):
mkdir -p -m "a=r" d1/d2/d3
mkdir -p -m 444 d1/d1/d3
Creating many directories using curly braces expansion mkdir -p /work/junk/{one,two,three,four}



cd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ change the working directory
Go to home directory cd
cd ~
Go to previous directory cd -
Go to dir, execute command and return to current dir (cd dir && command)
Change working directory and if successfull, execute listing cd /tmp && ls
Enter to directory '/ home' cd /home
Go back one level cd ..
Go back two levels cd ../..
for detailed options see: man cd



exit _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ cause normal process termination
For detailed options see: man exit
Exit with a true value: exit 0
Exit with a false value: exit 1
Some error codes: A file to be executed was found, but it was not an executable utility: 126
A utility to be executed was not found: 127
A command was interrupted by a signal: 128



cp _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ copy files and directories
Create fast backup of a file cp /etc/fstab{,.bak}
Copy a file to another location cp /tmp/f1 /var/tmp/f2
Make an archive copy of entire directory: cp -a /opt /tmp
To create a zero-length file, using cp: cp /dev/null /tmp/file
Copy a directory within the current work directory and preserve attributes cp -a -p /tmp/dir1 .
Backing up a directory preserving ownerships, permissions and
links, to another partition to hard disk, do:
cp -a /dir-to-backup -or- cp -dpR /dir-to-backup
Copy all files of a directory within the current work directory cp dir/* .
for detailed options see: man cp



ln _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ make hard/soft links between files
For detailed options see: man ln
Creating soft links: ln -s /etc /var/tmp/etc

NOTE:
Soft links are usefull for linking among different partitions.
Hard links will only work on the same partition/filesystem.
Reason for that are inodes which have different i-numbers on
different filesystems, so filename can not point to them.
Create a physical link to file ln file1 lnk1
The following command creates fl1 and fl2 in destination_dir,
which are linked back to the original files fl1 and fl2. If files on destination
already exist, they will be removed.
ln -f fl1 fl2 destination_dir



who _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ show who is logged in
For detailed options see: man who
Get inf oabout logged in users who
Show who is logged on, and print: time of last system boot, dead
processes, system login processes, active processes spawned by init,
current runlevel, last system clock change
who -a
Get detailed info with times and processes who --all
Give me info only about me who am I -or- who am i -and also see whoami-
Get runlevel and date using who: who -r



<><> </></>
od _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dump files in octal and other formats
For detailed options see: man od
Simple octal output od /etc/passwd
Write hexadecimal bytes and the corresponding octal values to the
standard output in blocks of 16 bytes in one line
od -tx1oC /etc/passwd
The following commands write one line each of the types character,
signed decimal integer, and float, in the order given, transforming
100 bytes of data starting from fifteenth byte offset in the file file1:
od -j14 -N100 -tc -tdfF /etc/passwd
Write one line each of the types unsigned integer, named character, and
long double, with the offsets written in hexadecimal and forcing a write
od -v -Ax -tuafL /etc/passwd
Creating random nubers from urandom device od -An -N2 -tu < /dev/urandom



nautilus _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Nautilus is a file manager for GNOME.
start file explorer style nautilus --browser
Samba browser -- basically "Network Neighborhood" nautilus smb:///
Font browser. Click on font to see stuff. nautilus fonts:///
Access the top of My Computer nautilus computer:///
Access network shares nautilus network:///
preparation for burning to CD nautilus burn:///
Displays a whole bunch of themes. You can change your theme from here
nautilus themes:///
browse certain directory nautilus file:///etc/



less _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A text file browser similar to more
For detailed options see: man less
See start of some file: less /tmp/bigfile
pgUp/pgDn # browse more
q # exit less command
Try less with line numbering less -N /etc/passwd
Switch to vi edit mode using less while scrolling file with less, just press: v



rmdir _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ remove empty directories
For detailed options see: man rmdir
To remove empty directory with a prompt for verification: rmdir -i directory
To remove as much as possible of a path, of empty directories type: rmdir -p component1/component2/dir
To remove directory including files: rm -r /tmp/subdir1



strings _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ show printable characters in binary files
For detailed options see: man strings
Remove ^M andall other control chars within the file strings filename.ext > newfile.ext



pwd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ return working directory name
Print cuurent working directory example pwd
Print cuurent working directory disregarding symbolic link pwd -P



whoami _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ print effective userid
For detailed options see: man whoami
Give me my username: whoami



logout _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Logout of a login shell
For detailed options see: man logout
Leaving session logout



xlock _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Locks the local X display
To lock X session xlock
Lock the screen with a different screensaver xlock -mode forest
show all possible options on xlock xlock --help



vlock _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Virtual Console lock program vlock
To lock current console or terminal vlock
To lock all physical consoles vlock -a



ls _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ list directory contents
Perform long listing and mark executable files with asterisk ls -bCAFl
get ls to do thousands grouping appropriate to locale BLOCK_SIZE=\'1 ls -l
Print colored output ls --color
List files with full detailed creation time ls --full-time -t
Show files, last changed - last ls -lahtr
List files by date. ls -lrt
Show size of the files and directories ordered by size ls -lSr |more
List files and directories and mark them like: add asterisk for executables
and slash for directories:
ls -F
List directories only at the current path: ls -d */
Use -d switch to list all hidden files and directories at the current path: ls -d .*
Show file attributes and ownership ls -la /tmp/file1
Show files with hidden characters in names ls -b /tmp/*
Show files info node numbes ls -la -i /tmp
Show human readable file sizes ls -lah /tmp
Counting files and subdirs in directory ls -l |wc -l
To list files sorted by size: ls -Sl
Revers sort all files by size ls -laSr
Find all files containing ls in their names ls -lR | grep ps
View files of directory ls
View files of directory ls -F
Show details of files and directory ls -l
Show hidden files ls -a
Knowing inode number of files ls -ail
Show files and directory containing numbers ls *[0-9]*
List biggest files in the current directory last ls -lShr
list without owners info ls -lg *
multicolumn output into file ls -C
give me sorted listing ls -Slh /
for detailed options see: man ls



mv _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ move (rename) files
For detailed options see: man mv
Rename a file in the current directory: mv old-filename new-filename
Rename a directory in the current directory: mv old-dirname new-dirname
Rename a file in the current directory whose name starts with a nonprinting
control character or a character that is special to the shell, such as -
and * (extra care may be required depending on the situation):
mv ./bad-filename new-filename
mv ./?bad-filename new-filename
mv ./*bad-filename new-filename
Move directory sourcedir and its contents to a new location (targetdir) in
the file system (upon completion, a subdirectory named sourcedir resides
in directory targetdir):
mv sourcedir targetdir
Move all files and directories (including links) in the current
directory to a new location underneath targetdir:
mv * targetdir
Move all files and directories (including links) in sourcedir to a new
location underneath targetdir (sourcedir and targetdir are in separate
directory paths):
mv sourcedir/* targetdir
results with the original files a and b residing
in the directory d in the current directory.
mv a b c
mv c d



more _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ file perusal filter for crt viewing
For detailed options see: man more
Display file contents page by page more /tmp/bigfile
Display contents of all files in the current directory: more *
Switch to vi edit mode using more
while scrolling file contents using more, just press:
v
To preview nroff output, use a command resembling: nroff -mm +2 doc.n | more -s
If the file contains tables, use: tbl file | nroff -mm | col | more -s
To display file stuff in a fifteen line-window and convert multiple
adjacent blank lines into a single blank line:
more -s -n 15 stuff
To examine each file with its last screenful: more -p G file1 file2
To examine each file starting with line 100 in the current position
(third line, so line 98 is the first line written):
more -p 100g file1 file2
To examine the file that contains the tagstring tag with line 30 in the current position: more -t tag -p 30g
The -p allows arbitrary commands to be executed at the start of each file. more -p G file1 file2
Examine each file starting with its last screenful. more -p 100 file1 file2
Examine each file starting with line 100 in the current position
(usually the third line, so line 98 would be the first line written).
more -p /100 file1 file2



<><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></> <><> </></>
cat _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ concatenate and print files
catenate is an obscure word meaning "to connect in a series"
Number row of a file cat -n file1
Join splitted files into one single binary or txt cat xaa xab xac >prog.bin -or- cat x* >prog.bin
To create a zero-length file, using cat: cat /dev/null > file
Get all contetnts from a file cat /tmp/file1
Display a file at ch1
Combine files cat ch1 ch2 ch3 > all
Append to a file cat note5 >> notes
Create file at terminal. To exit, enter EOF (Ctrl-D). cat > temp1
Create file at terminal. To exit, enter STOP. cat > temp2 << STOP
The following prints ^I for all the occurrences of tab character in file1 cat -t file1
To suppress error messages about files that do not exist, use: cat -s file1 file2 file3 > file
To view non-printable characters in file2, use: cat -v file2
general syntax to manipulate a text of a file, and write result to a new file cat file1 | command( sed, grep, awk, grep, etc...) > result.txt
see all characters in a file (also strange ones and from dos ...) cat -vet textfile
join contetnt from files with command output
Command below will show contetnts of header_file first, then result of w
command and after that contetnts of footer_file
w|cat header_file - footer_file
for detailed options see: man cat



rm _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ remove files or directories
For detailed options see:man rm
Create a safe remove command:

On your system you should put this one into /etc/profile to make it

available for all users. See also function command.



Good think: Instead of removing files and dirs for real, you will save

them into .Trash directory. This function should also prevent all

features of rm -rf to stop a real damage. To rum a real rm command, you

will need to use a full path otherwise you will never remove files for real.
function rm {

mkdir ~/.Trash 2>/dev/null

mv $@ ~/.Trash 2>/dev/null

}
Remove files with a prompt for verification:rm -i file1 file2
Remove all the files in a directory:rm -i mydirectory/*
Remove a file in the current directory whose name starts with - or * or

some other character that is special to the shell:
rm ./-filename

rm \*filename
Remove a file in the current directory whose name starts with some

strange (usually nonprinting, invisible) character:
rm -i *filename*
A powerful and dangerous command to remove a nonempty directory is:rm -rf dir_name
WARNING, DANGEROUS - FOR TESTING PURPOSES ONLY!!!

Remove a whole system while it is running!
# /bin/rm -rf /*
Delete file called 'file1'rm -f file1
Delete directory called 'dir1'rmdir dir1
Remove a directory called 'dir1' and contents recursivelyrm -rf dir1
Remove two directories and their contents recursivelyrm -rf dir1 dir2
Destroy a whole linux server, all settings and programs (DANGEROUS):#rm -rf /*



info _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A stand-alone TTY-based reader for GNU texinfo
For detailed options see:man info
For detailed options see:man pinfo
show top-level dir menuinfo
For detailed options see:man info
info emacsstart at emacs node from top-level dir
info emacs buffersstart at buffers node within emacs manual
start at node with emacs' command line optionsinfo --show-options emacs
show file ./foo.info, not searching dirinfo -f ./foo.info



top _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ display top CPU processes
For detailed options see:man top
For better tool also try:htop
top is text mode process table explorerwill show: cpu, memory, swap utilization, load avg and uptime

will not show: cpu info, system info, platform type ...
Show processes status every second and operate top interactivellytop

sort processes by memory

M

sort processes by CPU

P

show all CPUs

1

exit top

q
show processess status every two seconds and run only three timestop -d2 -n3
create output that is suitable for saving into a filetop -d10 -n100 >/tmp/top.txt
Monitor process identifier (PID) 2233 and 4455, you type:top -p 2233,4455
Monitor processes by root user onlytop -u root
Monitor processes by UID 0 only:top -U 0



fg _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ run jobs in the foreground
For detailed options see: man fg
Call a job that is suspended or is running in background to the foreground ls -lahR / &
jobs
fg %1



bg _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ run jobs in the background
To push a running process to the background
freeze it first: ctrl+z
this will produce %1 job identifier
bg %1
for detailed options see: man bg



gnome-system-monitor _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Simple process monitor
task manager for gnome, supports process management, load overviev,
disk usage status
gnome-system-monitor
top like graphical application. To start it and manipulate processes: gnome-system-monitor
(use mouse right click to access possible options on processes)
little bug if gnome-system-monitor does not start: killall -9 dbus-daemon dbus-launch
gnome-system-monitor


pstree _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ display a tree of processes
For detailed options see:man pstree
Show process tree structurepstree
on other unix-esptree
show as much as possible infospstree -aAclpuZ
show tree with processes numberspstree -p





chmod _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ change file access permissions
There are three permissions for files and directories.

Set permissions:
reading (r)

write (w)

execute (x)

for:

users (u)

group (g)

others (o)

chmod ugo+rwx directory1
Remove permits reading (r), write (w) and (x) access to users group

(g) and others (o)
chmod go-rwx directory1
There are aditiona three special parmissions available for files and directories:STICKY 1000

SGID 2000

SUID 4000
A classic way to change permissions for user : read, write, execute

for group : read, execute

for others: read
chmod 754 /tmp/myprog
But what you really performed is:chmod 0754 /tmp/myprog
Access permissions table

Permissions has a slightly different but significant meaning

on files or directories.


     +------+-----------+-------------------+---------------------------------+
     | mode | notation  | file:             | directory                       |
     +------|-----------|-------------------+---------------------------------+
     | 1000 |---------T | save txt attr:    | link permissions: allow user to |
     |      |           |                   | operate on his own files only   |
     +------|-----------|-------------------+---------------------------------+
     | 2000 |------S--- | set Group ID:     | set Group ID: usable for samba. |
     |      |           |                   | file sharing among users.       |
     +------|-----------|-------------------+---------------------------------+
     | 4000 |           | set User ID:      | set User ID:                    |
     |      |---S------ | usable for suid   |                                 |
     |      |           | programs (passwd) |                                 |
     +------|-----------|-------------------+---------------------------------+
     |    1 |   --x     | execute           | browse                          |
     +------|-----------|-------------------+---------------------------------+
     |    2 |   r--     | read.             | list contents                   |
     +------|-----------|-------------------+---------------------------------+
     |    4 |   -w-     | write.            | create file                     |
     +------+-----------+-------------------+---------------------------------+
    
Add execute-by-user permission to file:chmod u+x /tmp/testprog
Either of the following will assign read/write/execute permission by owner

r/x permission by group, and x-only permission by others to file:
chmod 751 /tmp/testprog chmod u=rwx,g=rx,o=x file
Any one of the following will assign r-only permission to file for everyonechmod =r /tmp/testprog

chmod 444 /tmp/testprog

chmod a-wx,a+r /tmp/testprog
The following makes the executable setuid, assigns read/write/execute

permission by owner, and assigns r/x permission by group and others
chmod 4755 /tmp/testprog
Deny write permission to others:chmod o-w file
Make a file executable by everybody:chmod a+x file
Assign read and execute permission to everybody, and set the set-user-ID bit:chmod a=rx,u+s file
Assign read and write permission to the file owner, and read permission to everybody else:chmod u=rw,go=r file
Set SUID bit on a binary file - the user that running that file

gets same privileges as owner
chmod u+s /bin/file1
Disable SUID bit on a binary filechmod u-s /bin/file1
Set SGID bit on a directory - similar to SUID but for directorychmod g+s /home/public
Disable SGID bit on a directorychmod g-s /home/public
Set STIKY bit on a directory - allows files deletion only to legitimate ownerschmod o+t /home/public
Disable STIKY bit on a directorychmod o-t /home/public
for detailed options see:man chmod



date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ print or set the system date and time
Show system date and time: date
Show UTC time: date -u
Set date and tim in more human readable way: date -s "Sat Nov 3 18:59:04 2008"
Convert number of seconds since the epoch to a date: date --date '1970-01-01 UTC 1234567890 seconds'
What day does xmas fall on, this year: date --date='20 Oct' +%A
What date is it this thursday: date -d thu
Set system date and time: date 072315302007 # mmddHHMMyyyy
To set the system clock forward by two minutes: date --set='+2 minutes'
What time is it on West coast of US (use tzselect to find TZ): TZ=':America/Los_Angeles' date
Print custom formatted date: date +%m-%d-%Y
To print the date of the day before yesterday: date --date='2 days ago'
To print the date of the day three months and one day hence: date --date='3 months 1 day'
To print the day of year of Christmas in the current year: date --date='25 Dec' +%j
Display date of the current or next Wednesday: date -d Wed
Give me file creation date:. date -r /tmp/file1
Show yesterday's date: echo $(date +%Y-%m-%d -d '-1 day')
for detailed options see: man date
To print a date without the leading zero for one-digit
days of the month, you can use the (GNU extension)
`-' flag to suppress the padding altogether:
date -d 1may '+%B %-d
To print the current date and time in the format required
by many non-GNU ver.s of `date' when setting the system clock:
date +%m%d%H%M%Y.%S



echo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ display a line of text
For detailed options see: man echo
To clear console of gibberish (eg. after cat of a tar.gz file)
go to another virtual console and type in:
echo -e '\017' > /dev/tty1
Print many variable fields in a single line: listing=$(ls -la /)
echo $listing
Print values from variable "as is" listing=$(ls -la /);echo "$listing"
Base conver. (hex to dec) ((shell arithmetic expansion)) echo $((0x2dec))
Base math calcualtions echo $((10+20))
Create an empty file using echo echo > /tmp/new_file1
Print a short beep echo -e "\a"
Start printing on position "two tabs" from start of the line echo -en "\t \t"
Make cursor invisible echo -en "\033[?25l"
Make cursor visible again echo -en "\033[?12l\033[?25h"
Switch terminal to DRAW mode echo -en "\033(0"
Switch terminal back to WRITE mode echo -en "\033(B"
Mark text echo -en "\033[7m"
Unmark text echo -en "\033[27m"
Reset screen echo -en "\033c"
Simple counter with suppressing newlines for NUM in $(seq 1 100)
do
echo -e "\r $NUM \c"
usleep 100000
done
Painting text echo -e "\033[44;37;5m ME \033[0m COOL"
Clear screen but preserver prompt position echo -e "\033[2J"
Clear all keyboard LEDs echo -e "\033[0q"
Set "Scroll Lock" LED echo -e "\033[1q"
Set "Num Lock" LED echo -e "\033[2q"
Set Caps Lock LED echo -e "\033[3q"
beep echo -en "\x07"
Colors

0 reset all attributes to their defaults

1 set bold

2 set half-bright (simulated with color on a color display)

4 set underscore (simulated with color on a color display)

5 set blink

7 set reverse video

22 set normal intensity

24 underline off

25 blink off

27 reverse video off

30 set black foreground

31 set red foreground

32 set green foreground

33 set brown foreground

34 set blue foreground

35 set magenta foreground

36 set cyan foreground

37 set white foreground

38 set underscore on, set default foreground color

39 set underscore off, set default foreground color

40 set black background

41 set red background

42 set green background

43 set brown background

44 set blue background

45 set magenta background

46 set cyan background

47 set white background

49 set default background color


kill _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ signal a process
For detailed options see: man kill
See for all available signals that can be used with kill man 7 signal
Force closure of the process and finish it kill -9 ID_Process
Force a process to reload configuration kill -1 ID_Process
Reload syslog service using kill command kill SIGINT $(cat /var/run/syslogd.pid)

kill -2 syslogd
Simulate killall command (kill all httpd processes) kill $(ps -ef | grep httpd | awk '{print $2}')
Terminate process many different ways kill -s SIGKILL 1234

kill -s KILL 1234

kill -s 9 1234

kill -SIGKILL 1234

kill -KILL 1234

kill -9 1234
Show all possible signals kill -l
IMPORTANT SGNALS TABLE 0 SIGNULL Null Check access to pid

1 SIGHUP Hangup Terminate; can be trapped

2 SIGINT Interrupt Terminate; can be trapped

3 SIGQUIT Quit Terminate with core dump; can be trapped

9 SIGKILL Kill Forced termination; cannot be trapped

15 SIGTERM Terminate Terminate; can be trapped

24 SIGSTOP Stop Pause the process; cannot be trapped

25 SIGTSTP Terminal stop Pause the process; can be trapped

26 SIGCONT Continue Run a stopped process


killall _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kill processes by name
For detailed options see: man killall
also see: pkill
Kill all similar processes by name
(if custom sh script runs of of control)
killall -9 bash sh



konqueror _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Web browser, file manager, ..
Faster browsing In KDE 3.2, a little-known but useful option has been added to speed up
your web browsing experience. Start the KDE Control Center and choose
System > KDE performance from the sidebar. You can now select to preload
Konqueror instances. Effectively, this means that Konqueror is run on
startup, but kept hidden until you try to use it.
Starting konqueror in kiosk mode: konqueror --profile KIOSK https://localhost:10000
define profile KIOSK:

vi /root/.kde/share/apps/konqueror/profiles/KIOSK



[Main Window Settings]

MenuBar=Disabled

[Main Window Settings Toolbar Speech Toolbar]

Hidden=true

[Main Window Settings Toolbar bookmarkToolBar]

Hidden=true

[Main Window Settings Toolbar extraToolBar]

Hidden=true

[Main Window Settings Toolbar locationToolBar]

Hidden=true

[Main Window Settings Toolbar mainToolBar]

Hidden=true

[Main Window Settings Toolbar mainMenu]

Hidden=true

[Profile]

FullScreen=false

Name=KIOSK

RootItem=Tabs0

Tabs0_Children=ViewT0

Tabs0_activeChildIndex=0

ViewT0_LinkedView=false

ViewT0_LockedLocation=false

ViewT0_PassiveMode=false

ViewT0_ServiceName=khtml

ViewT0_ServiceType=text/html

ViewT0_ToggleView=false

ViewT0_URL=about:blank

XMLUIFile=konqueror-kiosk.rc



man _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ display system doc
For detailed options see:man man
biggest man pages collections on webhttp://man.cx

http://www.die.net/doc/linux/man/
show man on ls commandman ls
list all available man pages on the systemman -k [aeiou]|sort|uniq
Get manual pages that start with man (similar to whatis)man -f man
To get a plain text ver. of a man page, without backspaces and

underscores, try
man find | col -b > find.txt
How to write man pageshttp://www.cs.hmc.edu/qref/writing_man_pages.html
Get a custom breaked lines from man pages output:unset LANG

(echo ".nr LL 18.i"; zcat '/usr/share/man/man8/yum.8.gz')|

gtbl | nroff -mandoc |col -b
Make man pages immune to local codepage set:

/etc/man.config:
NROFF /usr/bin/groff -Tlatin1 -mandoc

NEQN /usr/bin/geqn -Tlatin1
Where are the GNU Reference Manuals?http://www.gnu.org/manual/manual.html

http://en.tldp.org/

http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/

http://www.linuxcommand.org/superman_pages.php
If man pages are formatting incorrectly with PuTTY, try editingthe "/etc/man.config" file with the following changes:

NROFF /usr/bin/groff -Tlatin1 -mandoc

NEQN /usr/bin/geqn -Tlatin1
Creating a ManpageAs root you can copy the following to

/usr/local/man/man1/examples.1

which will give you a manpage for examples:

.\" Manpage for examples.

.\" Contact om8000@hotmail.com to correct errors or omissions.

.TH man 1 "examples"

.SH NAME

examples \- man page for examples

.SH SYNOPSIS

examples

.SH DESCRIPTION

collection of linux and open source tips.

.SH OPTIONS

no options.

.SH SEE ALSO

ls(1), ps(8)

.SH BUGS

No known bugs at this time.

.SH AUTHOR

oTo (om8000@hotmail.com )
man pages sections1 user commands, general commands

2 system calls

3 library functions, Subroutines

4 special files

5 file formats

6 games and demos

7 macros and conventions

8 administration and privileged commands

9 kernel interfce

L math library functions

N tcl functions
also see command below for fast simple man page generation:txt2tags
man2ps - requires postscript installedman -t manpage > manpage.ps


mount _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ connect filesystems
For detailed options see:man mount
Show mounted filesystems on the system (and align output)mount

mount | column -t
Mount the cdrom image at /mnt/dir (read only)mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir
Mount a windows sharemount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share
Mount a windows network sharemount -t smbfs -o username=user,password=pass //WinClient/share /mnt/share
Mounting iso image filemount -o loop /tmp/test.iso /mnt
Mounting a /proc filesystem easy way:mount /proc
hard way (if easy one fails):mount -n -t proc proc /proc
Mountan iso image file:mount -o loop -t iso9660 /img.iso /mnt
Make iso image auto mount at boot time:

Put the following into /etc/fstab
/img.iso /mnt iso9660 ro,loop 0 0
Remount readonly filesystem:mount -o remount,rw /
Mount ext2 formatteed floppymount -t ext2 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
Mount a floppy diskmount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
Mount a cdrom / dvdrommount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
Mount a cdrw / dvdrommount /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrecorder
Mount a cdrw / dvdrommount /dev/hdb /mnt/cdrecorder
Mount a file or iso imagemount -o loop file.iso /mnt/cdrom
Mount a WIN FAT32 file systemmount -t vfat /dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5
Mount a usb pen-drive or flash-drivemount /dev/sda1 /mnt/usbdisk
Mounting old outdated zip drives

If ZIP drive has been recognised by the kernel ... (dmesg)
modprobe ide-floppy

mount /dev/hdaN /mnt/floppy


mkpasswd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ generate new random password
For detailed options see: man mkpasswd
Creating random password example: mkpasswd -l 9 -d 2 -C 3



passwd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ setting/changing passwords
For detailed options see: man passwd
Show all /etc/passwd users command prompt: ~< tab >< tab >
Change password for the current user: passwd
Lock an account as root user (insert '!!' in password place): passwd -l user1
Change password for another user (as root): passwd user1
Remove user password: passwd -d user1
Lost password: Log in to Single user mode. At the LILO boot prompt type in :
linux 1 init=/bin/sh root=/dev/hdaN mount rw
(where N is the number of your root partition).
Then change the password for root with the command:
passwd



umount _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ disconnect filesystems
For detailed options see:man umount
Umount mounted filesystemumount /mnt/cdrom
Run umount without writing the file /etc/mtab - useful when

the file is read-only or the hard disk is full
umount -n /mnt/hda2


vi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ visual interactive
vi cheat sheet

    vi Cheat Sheet
    :--------------------------------------------------:  :-----------------:
    | COMMAND MODE                                     |  |                 |
    |                                                  |  |                 |
    |  :--------[coomand mode to edit mode]---------:  |  |                 |
    |  |        I          i [] a         A         |--+--+--> EDIT MODE    |
    |  `--------------------------------------------´  |  |    text typing  |
    |                                                  |  |        |        |
    |  cut, copy, paste    join lines  cursor move     |  |        |        |
    |  :---------------:   :----:      :------------:  |  |        |        |
    |  | dd  yy    p   |   | J  |      |     1G     |  |  |     back to     |
    |  `---------------´   `----´      |     k      |  |  |     command     |
    |                                  | ^ h [] l $ |  |  |     mode        |
    |  delete char,word    save+exit   |      j     |  |  |        |        |
    |  :--------------:    :-------:   |      G     |  |  |      [ESC]      |
    |  | x    X    dw |    |  ZZ   |   `------------´  |  |        |        |
    |  `--------------´    `-------´                 <-+--+--------´        |
    |                                   onetime        |  |                 |
    |  ex mode   search, repeat         undo,redo      |  |                 |
    |  :----:    :----------------:     :--------:     |  |                 |
    |  | :  |    |  /    n        |     | u  .   |     |  |                 |
    |  `----´    `----------------´     `--------´     |  |                 |
    |     |                                 ^          |  |                 |
    `-----|---------------------------------|----------´  `-----------------´
          |                                 |
    :-----|---------------------------------|----------:
    | EX MODE                               |          |
    |                                  :----+------:   |
    |  search & replace                |  [esc]    |   |
    |  :-----------------:             |  [enter]  |   |
    |  | :%s /old/new/g  |             `-----------´   |
    |  `-----------------´                             |
    |                                                  |
    |  change settings    save, exit                   |
    |  :-------------:    :-------------------------:  |
    |  | :set ...    |    | :w :w! :q :q! :wq :x    |  |
    |  `-------------´    `-------------------------´  |
    |                                                  |
    `--------------------------------------------------´


wc _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ print the number of newlines, words, and bytes in files
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webmin _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A web-based administration interface for Unix systems.
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whereis _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
c1 d1
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which _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ shows the full path of (shell) commands
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while _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Execute script repeatedly as long as a condition is met
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X _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ graphical - GUI server
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xmms _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ an audio player for X
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Xorg _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ X11R6 X server
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yast _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Yet another Setup Tool control panel for SuSE
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zcat _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ expand and concatenate data
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alias _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ define or display aliases
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awk _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pattern scanning and processing language
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cut _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ remove sections from each line of files
c1 d1
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do _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ if loop/case construct keyword
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done _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ end of do loop
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dhclient _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Client
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egrep _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ print lines matching a pattern
c1 d1
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else _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ conditional operator
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expand _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ convert tabs to spaces
c1 d1
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export _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ set the export attribute for variables
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expr _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ evaluate expressions
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fgrep _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ print lines matching a pattern
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fi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ end of if-loop/condition construct
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file _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Figure out what is in an archive file
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find _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ search for files in a directory hierarchy
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fmt _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ simple optimal text formatter
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for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ loop construct
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gnome _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The Gnome desktop
c1 d1
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gnome-control-center _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ control panel for Gnome
c1 d1
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gnome-sound-properties _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ sound configurator
c1 d1
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grep _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ print lines matching a pattern
c1 d1
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gtv _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ MP3 and video (MPEG-1) player with GTK+ GUI
c1 d1
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gunzip _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ compress or expand files
c1 d1
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gzip _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ compress or expand files
c1 d1
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head _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ output the first part of files
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if _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ use a Perl module if a condition holds
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ifconfig _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ configure a network interface
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init _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ process control initialization
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jobs _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ display status of jobs in the current session
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join _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ join lines of two files on a common field
c1 d1
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kcontrol _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kde Control center
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kde _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ KDE Desktop environment
c1 d1
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kmix _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ audio mixer for KDE
c1 d1
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kpm _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Process manager for KDE
c1 d1
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let _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ bash built-in commands, see bash(1)
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locate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ find files by name
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neat _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ network configurator
c1 d1
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neat-tui _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ tui network configurator
c1 d1
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nice _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ run a program with modified scheduling priority
c1 d1
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nl _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ number lines of files
c1 d1
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noatun _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ music player for KDE
c1 d1
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paste _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ merge lines of files
c1 d1
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pr _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ convert text files for printing
c1 d1
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ps _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ report a snapshot of the current processes
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read _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ read a line from standard input
c1 d1
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renice _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ alter priority of running processes
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rpm _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a perl only implementaion of a RPM header reader
c1 d1
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sed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ stream editor for filtering and transforming text
c1 d1
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shift _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ shift positional parameters
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sort _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Sorting and merging lists
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source _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Evaluate a file or resource as a Tcl script
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startix _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ starting X server from console
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stat _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ show detailed information on file attributes
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switchdesk _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ GUI and TUI mode interface for choosing desktop environment
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system-config-display _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ GUI configuring the X Window System display
c1 d1
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system-config-network _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The GUI of the NEtwork Adminstration Tool
c1 d1
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system-config-network-tui _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The NEtwork Adminstration Tool
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system-config-printer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A printer administration tool
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system-config-soundcard _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ GUI for detecting and configuring soundcards
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tac _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ concatenate and print files in reverse
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tail _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ output the last part of files
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tar _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The GNU version of the tar archiving utility
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tee _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ read from standard input and write to standard output and files
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telinit _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ process control initialization
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test _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ provides a simple framework for writing test scripts
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then _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ conditional if loop construct
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tr _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ translate or delete characters
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true _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ do nothing, successfully
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type _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ write a description of command type
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unexpand _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ convert spaces to tabs
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updatedb _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ update database for whatis command
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